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Routine as Repertoire


In the 1910s, pioneering management consultant Frank Gilbreth conducted time-motion studies to analyze workers' movements by attaching light globes to their hands and making photographs and videos. The traced motion of the hands in the photographs would then be translated into a physical model for spatial analysis and to train workers to be more efficient. He proposed that this will help to improve worker’s condition by reducing fatigue. However, workers and unions resisted the dehumanizing pressure of the relentlessly monitored production line.